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During the CSO control measures evaluation stage, alternative measures that can reduce the impact of CSO discharges will typically fall into one of the following four categories:

  • Source Control Technologies/Alternatives: eliminating or preventing pollution before it is created.
  • Collection System Control Reducing Technologies/Alternatives: reducing the discharge volume, concentration, or frequency.
  • Storage Technologies/Alternatives: capturing all or some of the discharge and then releasing for treatment.
  • Treatment Technologies/Alternatives: treating as much as possible.

After assembling a list of possible control alternatives, the necessary preliminary screening will be conducted in order to better evaluate which control alternatives have the highest potential to protect receiving water quality. The selected alternatives will be screened against evaluation criteria that were selected based upon characteristics of CSO discharges that are measurable and can impact the receiving water. The final CSO control alternatives will be prioritized based on their potential to reduce the CSO discharge frequency and pollutant load to each water body, their cost effectiveness, and on the financial capability.


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